Baru

Gigi berang-berang 'digunakan untuk mengukir patung kayu tertua di dunia'

Gigi berang-berang 'digunakan untuk mengukir patung kayu tertua di dunia'



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Bertarikh 11,000 tahun - dengan mesej berkod yang ditinggalkan oleh orang kuno dari Zaman Mesolitik - Shigir Idol hampir tiga kali lebih tua dari piramid Mesir.

Penemuan saintifik baru menunjukkan bahawa gambar dan hieroglif pada patung kayu itu diukir dengan rahang berang, giginya utuh.

Awalnya digali dari rawa gambut oleh pelombong emas di Pegunungan Ural pada tahun 1890, Idol berwajah tujuh yang luar biasa itu kini dipamerkan di sebuah sarkofagus kaca di sebuah muzium di Yekaterinburg.

Dua tahun yang lalu, saintis Jerman bertarikh Idol berusia 11,000 tahun.

Pada persidangan yang melibatkan pakar antarabangsa yang diadakan di bandar minggu ini, Profesor Mikhail Zhilin mengatakan patung kayu, yang tingginya awalnya 5,3 meter (17,4 kaki), terbuat dari larch, dengan ruang bawah tanah dan kepala diukir menggunakan alat silikon.

"Permukaannya dipoles dengan pelelas yang halus, setelah itu hiasan itu diukir dengan pahat," kata pakar itu.

'Sekurang-kurangnya tiga digunakan, dan mereka mempunyai lebar bilah yang berbeza.

Wajah-wajah itu 'yang terakhir diukir kerana selain pahat, beberapa alat yang sangat menarik - terbuat dari bahagian rahang bawah berang - digunakan'.

Dia berkata: 'Berang diciptakan untuk mengukir pokok. Sekiranya anda mengasah gigi pemotong berang, anda akan mendapat alat yang sangat baik untuk mengukir permukaan cekung. '

'Ini adalah karya agung, membawa nilai dan kekuatan emosi raksasa'. Gambar: The Siberian Times, Svetlana Savchenko

Profesor itu telah menemui 'alat' yang terbuat dari rahang berang di laman arkeologi lain - Beregovaya 2, bertarikh pada masa yang sama.

Semasa mempelajari Idol, dia percaya alat itu sesuai dengan penandaannya, 'misalnya ketika membuat lubang lebih bulat', kata Svetlana Panina, ketua jabatan arkeologi di Muzium Sejarah Tempatan Daerah Sverdlovsk.

Berhala itu diletakkan di ruang bawah tanah batu, tidak digali di tanah, kata Zhilin.

Ia berdiri seperti ini selama kira-kira 50 tahun sebelum jatuh ke kolam, dan kemudian ditutupi rumput.

Gambut mengawetkannya seolah-olah dalam kapsul masa.




Ini adalah patung yang unik, tidak ada yang lain di dunia seperti ini. Gambar: The Siberian Times

Zhilin, penyelidik terkemuka Institut Arkeologi Akademi Sains Rusia, telah berbicara sebelumnya tentang 'perasaan kagum' ketika mempelajari Idol, lebih dari dua kali lebih tua daripada monumen Stonehenge di England.

"Ini adalah karya agung, membawa nilai dan kekuatan emosi raksasa," katanya.

'Ini adalah patung yang unik, tidak ada yang lain di dunia seperti ini. Ia sangat hidup, dan sangat rumit pada masa yang sama.

'Hiasan itu ditutup dengan apa-apa selain maklumat yang disulitkan. Orang menyebarkan pengetahuan dengan bantuan Idol. '

Hanya satu daripada tujuh muka tiga dimensi.

Walaupun pesannya tetap 'misteri sepenuhnya bagi manusia moden', jelas bahawa penciptanya 'hidup secara harmoni dengan dunia, mempunyai perkembangan intelektual maju, dan dunia spiritual yang rumit', katanya.

Idola Shigir hampir tiga kali lebih tua dari piramid Mesir. Gambar: The Siberian Times


Siberia 9,000BC: Rahsia terungkap mengenai bagaimana hieroglif diukir menjadi patung tertua di dunia

Idol Shigir yang besar, yang dipelihara selama lebih dari 10,000 tahun di Siberia, diukir dengan instrumen termasuk gigi berang-berang, para saintis telah menemukan.

Idola itu berasal dari zaman Mesolitik. Ia pertama kali ditemui pada tahun 1894 semasa penyelidikan wilayah Shigir di Pergunungan Ural di Siberia.

Berdiri setinggi 5.3 meter, patung kayu itu mempunyai tujuh wajah: satu diukir dalam tiga dimensi di bahagian atas, dan enam lagi di badan dan kaki patung.

Para saintis telah berusaha untuk mencari alat yang digunakan untuk mengukir bentuk dan tanda patung. Tujuh wajah idola itu adalah yang terakhir terukir, dan yang diwujudkan dengan instrumen yang paling tidak biasa.

"Beberapa alat yang sangat menarik - terbuat dari bahagian rahang bawah berang - digunakan," kata Mikhail Zhilin dari Institut Arkeologi Akademi Sains Rusia, yang telah meneliti ukiran itu, kepada Siberian Times.

Gigi berang-berang menjadikan alat yang ideal untuk mengukir kayu, kata Zhilin. Lagipun, inilah yang dilakukan oleh haiwan dalam hidup mereka untuk membina empangan mereka.

"Jika anda mengasah gigi pemotong berang, anda akan mendapat alat yang sangat baik untuk mengukir permukaan cekung."

Walaupun berusia 11,000 tahun, patung itu dianggap memiliki umur yang relatif pendek sebagai idola berdiri. Pokok larch yang membuatnya berumur kira-kira 160 tahun ketika ditebang. Kayu itu kemudian diukir menjadi bentuk sebelum dipasang di dasar batu. Kemudian ia bertahan selama 50 tahun sebelum jatuh ke rawa gambut.

Rawa ini mewujudkan keadaan yang sesuai untuk memelihara patung kayu. Rawa gambut biasanya sangat rendah oksigen dan berasid, membunuh mikroba yang akan memecah patung dan membuatnya reput.

The Shigir Idol kini dipamerkan di Muzium Lokal Museum Sverdlovsk di kota Yekaterinburg di Siberia.

Shigir Idol digali di Siberia pada tahun 1984. Siberian Times

"Ini adalah karya agung, membawa nilai dan kekuatan emosi raksasa," kata Zhilin.

"Ini adalah patung yang unik, tidak ada yang lain di dunia seperti ini. Ia sangat hidup, dan sangat rumit pada masa yang sama."

Walaupun kaedah yang digunakan untuk membuat ukiran tersebut dijelaskan, makna ukiran itu sendiri tetap misteri.

"Hiasan itu ditutup dengan apa-apa selain maklumat yang disulitkan. Orang menyampaikan pengetahuan dengan bantuan Idol."

Ukiran ini dibuat dengan benda tajam, termasuk gigi berang-berang. Siberian Times


Pencari emas pertama kali menemui apa yang disebut Shigir Idol di dasar rawa gambut di pegunungan Ural Rusia pada tahun 1890. Objek uniknya - tiang totem setinggi sembilan kaki yang terdiri daripada sepuluh serpihan kayu yang diukir dengan wajah, mata dan anggota badan yang ekspresif dan dihiasi dengan corak geometri — mewakili karya seni ritual kayu tertua yang masih hidup di dunia.

Pemburu-pengumpul di Rusia sekarang menganggap patung kayu itu sebagai karya seni yang disemai dengan makna ritual.

Lebih dari satu abad setelah penemuannya, ahli arkeologi terus mengungkap kejutan mengenai artefak yang menakjubkan ini. Seperti yang ditulis oleh Thomas Terberger, seorang sarjana prasejarah di Universiti Göttingen di Jerman, dan rakan-rakannya dalam jurnal Quaternary International pada bulan Januari, penyelidikan baru menunjukkan arca itu 900 tahun lebih tua daripada yang difikirkan sebelumnya.

Berdasarkan analisis yang luas, pasukan Terberger kini menganggarkan bahawa objek itu kemungkinan dibuat sekitar 12.500 tahun yang lalu, pada akhir Zaman Es Terakhir. Penciptanya yang kuno mengukir karya dari pohon larch tunggal dengan 159 cincin pertumbuhan, penulis menulis dalam kajian itu.

"Idola itu diukir pada era perubahan iklim yang hebat, ketika hutan awal menyebar di glasial akhir yang lebih panas hingga Eurasia pasca glasial," kata Terberger kepada Franz Lidz dari New York Times.

"Lanskap berubah, dan seni - reka bentuk kiasan dan binatang naturalistik yang dilukis di gua dan diukir di batu - juga, mungkin sebagai cara untuk membantu orang untuk menghadapi lingkungan yang menantang yang mereka hadapi."

Menurut Sarah Cascone dari Artnet News, penemuan baru menunjukkan bahawa karya seni yang jarang terjadi itu mendahului Stonehenge, yang diciptakan sekitar 5,000 tahun yang lalu, lebih dari 7,000 tahun. Ia juga dua kali lebih tua dari piramid Mesir, yang berlaku kira-kira 4.500 tahun yang lalu.

Seperti yang dilaporkan oleh Times, para penyelidik telah membingungkan usia patung Shigir selama beberapa dekad. Perbahasan ini mempunyai implikasi besar terhadap kajian prasejarah, yang cenderung menekankan pandangan berpusatkan Barat terhadap pembangunan manusia.

Kayu yang digunakan untuk mengukir Shigir Idol berusia sekitar 12.250 tahun. Shigir Idol & # 8211 arca kayu tertua yang terkenal di dunia.

Pada tahun 1997, saintis Rusia menggunakan tiang totem sekitar 9,500 tahun yang lalu. Ramai dalam komuniti saintifik menolak penemuan ini sebagai tidak masuk akal: enggan mempercayai bahawa komuniti pemburu-pengumpul di Ural dan Siberia telah mencipta seni atau membentuk budaya mereka sendiri, kata Terberger kepada Times, para penyelidik sebaliknya menyampaikan narasi evolusi manusia yang berpusat Sejarah Eropah, dengan masyarakat pertanian kuno di Fertile Crescent akhirnya menyemai benih peradaban Barat.

Pandangan yang berlaku selama abad yang lalu menambahkan Terberger, yang menganggap pemburu-pengumpul sebagai "lebih rendah daripada masyarakat agraria awal yang muncul pada waktu itu di Levant. Pada masa yang sama, bukti arkeologi dari Ural dan Siberia dipandang rendah dan diabaikan. "

Pada tahun 2018, saintis termasuk Terberger menggunakan teknologi spektrometri massa pemecut untuk berpendapat bahawa objek kayu itu berusia sekitar 11,600 tahun. Kini, penerbitan terbaru pasukan telah mendorong tarikh asal itu lebih jauh lagi.

Seperti yang dilaporkan oleh Artnet News, simbol kompleks yang terpahat di permukaan kayu objek menunjukkan bahawa penciptanya menjadikannya sebagai karya "seni mobiliary", atau seni mudah alih yang membawa makna ritual.

Pengarang bersama Svetlana Savchenko, kurator yang bertanggungjawab terhadap artifak di Muzium Lokal Daerah Sverdlovsk, memberitahu Times bahawa lapan wajah itu mungkin mengandungi rujukan yang dienkripsi untuk mitos penciptaan atau batas antara bumi dan langit.

"Kerja kayu mungkin tersebar luas di Glacial Akhir hingga Holocene awal," tulis penulis dalam artikel 2018. "Kami melihat patung Shigir sebagai dokumen tingkah laku simbolik yang kompleks dan dunia rohani Glacial Akhir hingga pemburu-pemburu Mesolitik Awal Ural."

Kenyataan bahawa bukti langka karya seni pemburu-pengumpul ini bertahan sehingga zaman moden adalah keajaiban dalam dirinya sendiri, nota Science Alert. Persekitaran berasid dan antimikroba rawa gambut Rusia mengekalkan struktur kayu selama ribuan tahun.

João Zilhão, seorang sarjana di University of Barcelona yang tidak terlibat dalam kajian ini, mengatakan kepada Times bahawa kelangsungan hidup artefak itu mengingatkan para saintis tentang kebenaran penting: bahawa kekurangan bukti seni kuno tidak bermaksud ia tidak pernah ada.

Sebaliknya, banyak orang kuno membuat benda-benda seni dari bahan-bahan yang mudah rosak yang tidak tahan dengan ujian masa dan oleh karenanya ketinggalan dari catatan arkeologi.

"Ini serupa dengan dongeng 'Neanderthal tidak membuat seni', yang sepenuhnya didasarkan pada ketiadaan bukti," kata Zilhão. “Begitu juga, konsensus ilmiah yang luar biasa digunakan bahawa manusia moden lebih unggul dalam cara utama, termasuk kemampuan mereka untuk berinovasi, berkomunikasi dan menyesuaikan diri dengan lingkungan yang berbeza. Omong kosong, semuanya. "

Ketua Shigir Idol, arca kayu tertua yang terkenal di dunia & # 8217.

Mesej Shigir Idol yang tidak dapat diterima - patung tiga kali lebih tua dari piramid Mesir

Sebagai peserta dalam Program Associates Amazon Services LLC, laman web ini dapat memperoleh hasil dari pembelian yang memenuhi syarat. Kami juga boleh mendapat komisen atas pembelian dari laman web runcit lain.

Shigir Idol adalah patung kuno yang diukir dari larch yang ditemui pada 24 Januari 1894, pada kedalaman 4 meter di rawa gambut Shigir. Pada usia 11.000 tahun, ia dianggap sebagai patung kayu tertua yang pernah ditemui, ia ditutup dengan pesanan yang tidak dapat difahami tiga kali lebih tua dari Piramid Giza.

Menurut para pakar, kapsul zaman kuno ini mempunyai kod mesej yang membicarakan penciptaan dunia. Ia diliputi dengan maklumat yang dienkripsi yang belum dapat dikodkan oleh penyelidik.

Diyakini sekurang-kurangnya dua kali lebih tua dari Piramid Mesir. Kredit gambar: Constantin Voutsen

Salah satu patung paling misterius yang pernah ditemui di Bumi ditemui oleh para pelombong emas di Pegunungan Ural pada tahun 1890.

Membawa mesej berkod yang terukir di permukaannya - Shigir Idol berasal dari 11,000 tahun yang menarik. Menjadikannya hampir tiga kali lebih tua dari Piramid atau Stonehenge.

Idola kayu yang penuh teka-teki itu ditemui secara kebetulan oleh para pelombong emas di pergunungan Ural pada tahun 1890- Misteri berhala tujuh muka yang kini dipamerkan di muzium Yekaterinburg. Menurut saintis, hanya satu daripada tujuh wajah yang mempunyai tiga dimensi.

The Idol ini bertarikh 11,000 tahun oleh dua saintis Jerman yang mempelajari artifak secara terperinci selama bertahun-tahun.

Tetapi tidak ada yang dapat memahami atau menguraikan mesej yang disampaikannya. Tambahan pula, tidak ada yang dapat menjelaskan mengapa idola Shigir — yang seharusnya diukir oleh manusia kuno dari Zaman Mesolitik — terlihat seperti yang dilakukannya, dengan kepala berbentuk oval, dengan tujuh muka, dan mengapa asalnya 5,3 meter tinggi. Maksud saya ia sangat besar, dan anda mesti bertanya mengapa? Mengapa tidak membina sesuatu yang lebih kecil?

Pada persidangan ilmiah baru-baru ini di Yekaterinburg, yang melibatkan pakar antarabangsa, Profesor Mikhail Zhilin mengatakan patung kayu, yang awalnya tingginya 5,3 meter, terbuat dari larch, dengan ruang bawah tanah dan kepala diukir menggunakan alat silikon.

& # 8220 Permukaannya digilap dengan pelelas yang halus, setelah itu hiasan itu diukir dengan pahat, & # 8217 kata pakar. Sekurang-kurangnya tiga digunakan, dan lebar pisau mereka berbeza, & # 8221 melaporkan Siberian Times.

Tujuh wajah Shigr Idol

Pakar menyimpulkan bagaimana tujuh wajah Idol adalah "yang terakhir diukir kerana selain pahat, beberapa alat yang sangat menarik & # 8211 terbuat dari bahagian rahang bawah berang & # 8211 digunakan. & # 8221

Profesor Zhilin menambah bahawa: & # 8220Brever diciptakan untuk mengukir pokok. Sekiranya anda mengasah gigi pemotong berang & # 8217s, anda akan mendapat alat yang sangat sesuai untuk mengukir permukaan cekung. & # 8221

Para saintis telah menemui & # 8220tools & # 8221 yang dihasilkan dari rahang berang di laman arkeologi yang serupa bernama Beregovaya 2, yang berasal dari tempoh yang sama.

Setelah mempelajari Shigir Idol. Pakar percaya alat ini sesuai dengan tanda yang terukir di permukaan Idol.

& # 8220Contohnya ketika membuat lubang lebih bulat, & # 8221 kata Svetlana Panina, ketua jabatan arkeologi di Muzium Sejarah Tempatan Daerah Sverdlovsk.

Dan walaupun kita telah mengetahui dengan jelas apa tanda-tanda misteri yang dibuat di permukaan Idola, kita masih gagal memahami tujuan sebenar Shigir Idol, mesej yang disampaikannya, dan mengapa ia kelihatan seperti apa yang dilihat oleh manusia purba seperti 11,000 tahun yang lalu.

Idola tujuh muka yang misterius itu dipamerkan di sebuah sarkofagus kaca di sebuah muzium di Yekaterinburg. Kredit Gambar

Apa yang cuba disampaikan oleh pencipta Idol? Apakah mesej yang diukir oleh manusia kuno 11,000 tahun yang lalu di permukaan Idola? Dan mengapa penciptanya memutuskan untuk "mengarang" setinggi 5.3 meter - Idola pertama?

Pandangan sisi Shigir Idol. Kredit Gambar

Profesor Zhilin — yang merupakan saintis terkemuka di Akademi Sains Rusia & # 8217 Institut Arkeologi sebelumnya telah menyatakan & # 8216 perasaan kagum & # 8217 ketika mempelajari Idola, yang hampir tiga kali lebih tua dari Piramid Giza dan Stonehenge di Inggeris.

& # 8220Ini adalah karya agung, dan ia mempunyai nilai dan kekuatan emosi yang besar, & # 8221 katanya. & # 8220Ia adalah salah satu patung paling unik yang pernah dijumpai tidak ada yang lain di seluruh dunia seperti ini. Ia sangat hidup, dan sangat rumit pada masa yang sama. Seluruh patung ditutupi dengan maklumat selain maklumat yang disulitkan. Orang menyebarkan pengetahuan dengan bantuan Idol, & # 8221 tambah Profesor Zhilin.

Pakar yang mempelajari Idol telah sebulat suara menyimpulkan bagaimana mesej yang terpahat di Idol itu tetap menjadi & # 8220an misteri kepada manusia moden. & # 8221


Kandungan

Gading sama sekali tidak diperoleh dari gajah mana-mana gigi atau gading binatang yang digunakan sebagai bahan untuk ukiran dapat disebut "gading", walaupun spesies ini biasanya ditambahkan, dan sebilangan besar spesies yang berlainan dengan gading atau gigi besar telah digunakan. Gigi mempunyai tiga elemen: enamel gigi luar, kemudian badan utama dentin, dan akar dalaman osteo-dentine. Untuk tujuan mengukir dua yang terakhir ada di kebanyakan haiwan yang kedua-duanya dapat digunakan, tetapi enamel yang lebih keras mungkin terlalu sukar untuk diukir, dan memerlukan penyingkiran dengan mengisar terlebih dahulu. Ini seperti halnya hippopotamus misalnya, yang enamel giginya (pada gigi terbesar) sekeras giok. Gading gajah, serta terdapat dalam kepingan terbesar, agak lembut dan sekata, dan merupakan bahan yang sesuai untuk ukiran. Spesies haiwan dari mana gading berasal biasanya dapat ditentukan dengan pemeriksaan di bawah sinar ultra-ungu, di mana pelbagai jenis menunjukkan warna yang berbeza. [2]

Gading gajah Eurasia biasanya diperoleh dari gading gajah di India, dan pada zaman Rom, dari Afrika Utara dari Afrika sub-Sahara abad ke-18 menjadi sumber utama. Penuaian gading menyebabkan kepupusan, atau hampir pupus gajah di sebilangan besar bekasnya. Pada awal abad pertengahan Eropah Utara, gading walrus diperdagangkan ke selatan dari jauh seperti Greenland Norse ke Skandinavia, England selatan dan Perancis utara dan Jerman. Di Siberia dan Arctic Amerika Utara, gading raksasa dapat dipulihkan dari permafrost dan menggunakan ini menjadi perniagaan besar pada abad ke-19, dengan narapidana digunakan untuk sebagian besar pekerja. Venus Brassempouy yang berusia 25,000 tahun, yang boleh dikatakan merupakan wajah sebenar manusia yang paling awal, diukir dari gading raksasa yang pasti dibunuh. Di Eropah utara pada Zaman Pertengahan Awal, gading walrus lebih mudah diperoleh dari pedagang Viking, dan kemudian penempatan orang Norse di Greenland daripada gading gajah dari selatan pada masa ini walrus mungkin dijumpai jauh di selatan daripada yang ada sekarang. [4] Gigi paus sperma adalah sumber lain, dan ukiran tulang telah digunakan dalam banyak budaya tanpa akses ke gading, dan sebagai alternatif yang jauh lebih murah [5] pada abad pertengahan tulang paus sering digunakan, baik dari industri paus Basque atau alam helai. [4]

Zaman dahulu dan Zaman Pertengahan Awal Edit

Arca chryselephantine adalah patung yang terbuat dari campuran gading, biasanya untuk bahagian daging, dan bahan lain, biasanya disepuh, untuk bahagian berpakaian, dan digunakan untuk banyak patung kultus yang paling penting di Yunani Kuno dan budaya lain. Ini termasuk Athena Parthenos yang besar, patung dewi Yunani Athena buatan Phidias dan tumpuan bahagian dalam Parthenon di Athens. [7] Gading akan bertahan dengan sangat baik jika kering dan tidak panas, tetapi di kebanyakan iklim tidak lama bertahan di tanah, sehingga pengetahuan kita tentang gading Yunani Kuno dibatasi, sedangkan sebilangan besar kepingan Romawi Akhir, kebanyakannya plak dari diptychs, telah bertahan di atas tanah, biasanya berakhir di khazanah gereja.

Gading digunakan di Istana Darius di Susa di Kerajaan Achaemenid, menurut prasasti Darius I. Bahan mentah itu dibawa dari Afrika (Nubia) dan Asia Selatan (Sind dan Arachosia). [8]

Tidak diragukan lagi versi patung-patung dan jenis objek lain yang bertahan di tembikar Rom kuno dan media lain juga dibuat dalam gading, tetapi bertahan hidup sangat jarang terjadi. Beberapa keranda Rom dengan plak gading dengan ukiran lekatan telah terselamat, dan benda-benda seperti itu disalin pada Zaman Pertengahan Awal - Peti Franks dalam tulang adalah versi Anglo-Saxon dari abad ke-8, dan Peti Veroli yang satu Byzantine dari sekitar 1000 Kedua-duanya merangkumi pemandangan mitologi, masing-masing Jermanik dan klasik, yang terdapat dalam beberapa karya lain dari zaman ini.

Karya seni Antik Akhir yang paling penting yang diperbuat daripada gading adalah Arasy Maximianus. The kateter dari Maximianus, uskup Ravenna (546-556), ditutup sepenuhnya dengan panel gading. Ia mungkin diukir di Constantinople dan dihantar ke Ravenna. Ia terdiri daripada panel bunga hiasan yang membingkai pelbagai panel bergambar, termasuk satu dengan monogram kompleks uskup. [9]

Diptychs Konsul Rom Akhir diberikan sebagai hadiah oleh konsul, pegawai awam yang memainkan peranan penting pentadbiran sehingga 541, dan terdiri dari dua panel yang diukir di bahagian luar yang disatukan dengan engsel dengan gambar konsul. Bentuk tersebut kemudian diadopsi untuk penggunaan Kristian, dengan gambar Kristus, Theotokos dan orang suci. Mereka digunakan oleh individu untuk solat.

Panel gading semacam itu digunakan sebagai sampul buku dari abad ke-6, biasanya sebagai inti dari logam dan permata. kadang-kadang dipasang dari hingga lima panel yang lebih kecil kerana lebar gading yang terhad. Perhimpunan ini mencadangkan pengaturan komposisi dengan Kristus atau Maria di pusat dan malaikat, rasul dan orang suci di panel sayap. Sampul gading yang diukir digunakan untuk mengikat harta karun pada manuskrip yang paling berharga. Sangat sedikit bahagian logam permata untuk pengikatan harta karun yang masih bertahan, tetapi jumlah plak gading yang cukup tinggi yang pernah digunakan untuk mengikat masih bertahan.

Abad pertengahan tinggi dan seterusnya Edit

Gading Byzantium khas berfungsi selepas zaman Ikonoklastik adalah triptychs. Antara contoh yang paling luar biasa ialah Harbaville Triptych dari abad ke-10 dengan banyak panel kiasan. Triptych Byzantium semacam itu hanya dapat digunakan untuk pengabdian peribadi kerana ukurannya yang agak kecil. Triptych gading abad ke-10 yang lain terkenal adalah Borradaile Triptych di British Museum, dengan hanya satu gambar pusat (Penyaliban). Romanos Ivory mirip dengan triptych agama tetapi panel pusatnya menunjukkan Christ mahkota Maharaja Romanos dan Permaisuri Eudokia. Terdapat teori yang berbeza mengenai penguasa Byzantium yang dibuat untuk triptych. Salah satu penyelesaian yang mungkin adalah Romanos II yang memberikan tarikh pengeluaran antara tahun 944 dan 949. Nampaknya ukiran gading merosot atau sebahagian besarnya hilang di Byzantium selepas abad ke-12.

Eropah Barat juga membuat polietik, yang pada zaman Gothik biasanya memiliki panel sisi dengan tingkatan adegan naratif lega, daripada barisan orang suci yang disukai dalam karya-karya Bizantium. Ini biasanya dari Kehidupan Anak Dara atau Kehidupan Kristus. Sekiranya itu adalah triptych panel utama biasanya masih menampilkan pemandangan hieratik pada skala yang lebih besar tetapi diptychs hanya dengan adegan naratif adalah perkara biasa. Seni Barat tidak berkongsi penolakan Byzantium mengenai patung di pusingan: relief menjadi semakin tinggi dan patung-patung kecil biasa, mewakili banyak karya terbaik. Potongan catur dan permainan sering kali besar dan diukir dengan teliti Lewis Chessmen adalah antara yang terkenal.

Zaitun adalah tanduk yang dibuat dari ujung gading gajah, biasanya diukir di sekurang-kurangnya sebahagian permukaannya. Mereka mungkin lebih banyak untuk dipamerkan daripada digunakan dalam memburu.

Sebilangan besar gading abad pertengahan disepuh dan berwarna, kadang-kadang seluruh dan kadang-kadang hanya pada bahagian reka bentuk, tetapi biasanya hanya sedikit jejak yang terselamat dari pewarnaan permukaannya yang banyak digosok oleh peniaga abad ke-19. Sebilangan besar gading Gothic bertahan dengan warna asli dalam keadaan baik. Kadar kelangsungan hidup untuk panel gading selalu tinggi berbanding dengan media mewah yang setara seperti logam mulia kerana panel gading tipis tidak dapat digunakan kembali, walaupun ada yang terbalik dan diukir lagi di belakang. Sebilangan besar plak penutup buku kini terlepas dari buku asalnya dan keliling logam, selalunya kerana yang terakhir telah dilucutkan untuk pecah pada suatu ketika. Sama juga mereka lebih kuat daripada lukisan kecil. Karya-karya gading selalu dihargai, dan kerana kadar kelangsungan hidup dan daya tahan mereka sangat penting dalam penyampaian gaya artistik, terutama dalam seni Carolingian, yang menyalin dan mengubah banyak gading Akhir Antik.

Gading menjadi semakin tersedia ketika Zaman Pertengahan terus berjalan, dan pusat ukiran terpenting menjadi Paris, yang mempunyai hampir pengeluaran industri dan dieksport ke seluruh Eropah. Kepingan sekular, atau keagamaan untuk orang awam, secara beransur-ansur mengambil alih dari pengeluaran untuk para paderi. Casing cermin, kepingan permainan, kotak dan sikat adalah antara produk biasa, serta diptychs dan triptych agama kecil. [7] Peti dengan Scenes of Romances (Walters 71264) adalah contoh sekumpulan kecil kotak yang sangat mirip, mungkin dipersembahkan oleh pengantin lelaki masa depan kepada bakal isterinya, yang menyatukan sejumlah pemandangan yang diambil dari sastra romantik abad pertengahan.

Gading tidak pernah begitu penting setelah akhir Zaman Pertengahan, tetapi terus digunakan untuk plak, angka kecil, terutama "corpus" atau badan di atas salib, kipas, pegangan yang rumit untuk alat makan, dan sebilangan besar objek lain. [7] Dieppe di Perancis menjadi pusat penting, yang mengkhususkan diri dalam kapal terbuka dan model hiasan, dan Erbach di Jerman. Kholmogory telah berabad-abad menjadi pusat ukiran gaya Rusia, pernah di gading raksasa tetapi sekarang kebanyakannya berbentuk tulang. [11] Scrimshaw, biasanya bentuk ukiran daripada ukiran, adalah sejenis seni naif yang banyak diamalkan oleh para paus dan pelaut pada gigi ikan paus sperma dan gading laut lain, terutamanya pada abad ke-18 dan ke-19. Ivory digunakan untuk bola untuk permainan bola meja seperti biliar dan snooker hingga akhir abad ke-19, bahkan ketika permainan ini menjadi lebih luas. Kegunaan lain adalah untuk kunci putih instrumen papan kekunci dan pemegang alat makan, kadang-kadang diukir dengan teliti.

Gading adalah bahan yang sangat sesuai untuk corak geometri seni Islam yang rumit, dan telah banyak digunakan untuk kotak, lapisan kayu dan tujuan lain. Dari tahun 750 hingga 1258 Masehi, [12] dunia Islam lebih makmur daripada Barat, dan mempunyai akses yang lebih mudah ke gading dari India dan Afrika, jadi penggunaan bahan Islam lebih murah hati daripada Eropah, dengan banyak tong yang cukup besar , kotak bulat yang menggunakan bahagian penuh gading (kiri), dan kepingan lain. Kerja terbuka, di mana panel gading dipotong tepat untuk bahagian-bahagian reka bentuknya sangat biasa, seperti pada kayu kayu Islam. Seperti banyak aspek gading Islam, ini mencerminkan tradisi Byzantine yang diwarisi oleh Islam. Aniconisme Islam seringkali kurang ditegakkan dengan ketat dalam karya hiasan kecil, dan banyak gading Islam mempunyai tokoh haiwan, dan tokoh manusia, terutama pemburu. [13] [14]

Cordoba, Sepanyol Edit

Gading memiliki kepentingan semasa kekhalifahan Umayyah di Cordoba, Sepanyol. Bani Umayyah adalah salah satu dinasti Islam pertama yang mempromosikan Islam melalui seni, seni bina, dan kekuasaan politik. Walaupun terdapat di semenanjung Arab, Cordoba, Sepanyol, berfungsi sebagai mercu tanda penyebaran Islam Timur di bawah pemerintahan khilafah Umayyah. [15] Peti mati gading yang terdapat di Semenanjung Iberia kemungkinan dibina di bengkel Madinat al-Zahra, sebuah istana Umayyah di Cordoba. [16] Kontainer itu diukir dengan rumit, dengan motif pemandangan berburu, corak bunga, reka bentuk geometri, dan tulisan Kufic. Salah satu bangunan paling besar yang dibina semasa kehadiran Umayyah di Sepanyol adalah Madinat al-Zahra, sebuah istana-pinggir kota di kota Cordoba. [17] Istana ini merupakan pusat pemerintahan dan pemerintahan politik. Seperti bangunan Islam lain abad ke-10, seni dan seni bina di sekitar istana mencerminkan kemasukan Islam ke dalam masyarakat.

Objek-objek yang dihasilkan dalam suasana kehormatan dibuat untuk tokoh politik dan agama elit, sering menyatakan ketahanan khalifah pada waktu itu. [18] Pyxis al-Mughira menggambarkan tema-tema ini, menggunakan gambaran simbolik singa, perburuan, dan hiasan vegetarian yang berlimpah. Pyxis ini sangat terperinci dan dilekatkan sepenuhnya dalam hiasan. Seperti jalur teks di sepanjang bahagian atas wadah, citra dimaksudkan untuk dilihat dari kanan ke kiri, berisi berbagai adegan yang melengkapkan tampilan bersatu. [16] Penggunaan simbolisme berjaya dalam karya-karya ini kerana bukannya meraikan seorang khalifah tertentu, tokoh dan binatang itu mengingatkan akan berlakunya Islam secara keseluruhan. [19] Singa adalah simbol kejayaan, kuasa, dan monarki yang umum. Selain itu, citra vegetarian dan bunga menunjukkan banyak, dan dalam konteks banyak ukiran gading, kesuburan dan kewanitaan. [16] Wanita istana sering menjadi penerima bekas gading ini, untuk majlis perkahwinan atau upacara. Bekas itu digunakan untuk menyimpan perhiasan atau minyak wangi, sehingga mewujudkan lingkungan intim untuk wadah, pemilik, dan isinya. Karakter gading yang halus digunakan untuk menjalin hubungan antara objek dan wanita yang diciptakannya. Banyak wadah juga menyertakan frasa puitis yang mengaktifkan objek, menarik perhatian terhadap ciri visualnya. Dalam satu Pyxis Zamora (kanan), prasasti itu berbunyi, "Pemandangan yang saya tawarkan adalah yang paling cantik, payudara yang kuat dari seorang gadis yang halus. Kecantikan telah menginvestasikan saya dengan pakaian yang indah yang memamerkan permata. Saya adalah wadah untuk kasturi, kapur barus, dan ambergris. " [16]

India adalah pusat utama ukiran Gading sejak zaman kuno, seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh gading Begram.

Murshidabad di Negeri Benggala Barat, India adalah pusat terkenal untuk ukiran gading. Satu set meja dan kerusi gading, dipamerkan di Victoria Memorial, Kolkata adalah contoh ukiran indah yang dilakukan oleh Murshidabad Carvers. Kerusi ini adalah kerusi lengan berkaki lima, di mana tiga kaki memuncak ke cakar Harimau sementara dua lagi memuncak ke kepala harimau terbuka mulut. Meja dan kerusi mempunyai motif bunga berlubang yang sangat baik (karya jaali) dengan jejak penyaduran emas. Meja dan kerusi ini dipersembahkan ke muzium oleh Maharaja dari Darbhanga. Pengukir Murshidabad menyebut hujung gading gajah yang padat sebagai Nakshidant, bahagian tengah sebagai Khondidant dan hujung berongga tebal seperti Galhardant. [20] Mereka lebih suka menggunakan gading gajah yang kukuh untuk kerja mereka. Contoh spektakuler dari kraf ini masih dapat dilihat di Pintu Darshan Kuil Emas di Amritsar dan di pintu masuk Peringatan Tipu Sultan di Mysore.

Ukiran gading juga lazim di India Selatan, terutama di Mysore dan Tamil Nadu, dan juga di Uttar Pradesh dan Rajasthan. Gading Sri Lanka juga merupakan tradisi terkenal.

Gading bukanlah bahan berprestij dalam hierarki seni Cina yang agak ketat, di mana batu giok selalu dianggap lebih tinggi, dan tanduk badak, yang bukan gading, memiliki kedudukan yang istimewa. [21] Tetapi gading, serta tulang, telah digunakan untuk berbagai barang sejak awal, ketika China masih memiliki spesies gajah sendiri - permintaan untuk gading sepertinya telah memainkan peranan besar dalam kepunahan mereka, yang terjadi sebelum 100 SM. . Dari Dinasti Ming gading mula digunakan untuk patung-patung dewa kecil dan yang lain (lihat galeri). Pada Dinasti Qing, ini sesuai dengan selera ukiran yang rumit, dan menjadi lebih menonjol, digunakan untuk pemegang berus, kotak, pemegang dan kepingan serupa, dan kemudian Canton mengembangkan model rumah besar dan kepingan besar dan menarik lainnya, yang tetap popular . [22] Contoh yang sangat besar masih dilihat sebagai hiasan hiasan di majlis resepsi kerajaan. Figures were typically uncoloured, or just with certain features coloured in ink, often just black, but sometimes a few other colours. A speciality was Chinese puzzle balls, consisting of openwork that contained a series of smaller balls, freely rotating, inside them, a tribute to the patience of Asian craftsmen.

In Japan, ivory carving became popular around the Edo period in the 17th century. Kimono worn by people at that time had no pockets, and they carried small things by hanging containers called sagemono dan inro dari obi. The kiseru, a smoking pipe carried in a container, and the netsuke, a toggle on a container, were often decorated with fine ivory carvings of animals and legendary creatures. [23] With the start of modernization of Japan by the Meiji Restoration in the mid-1800s, the samurai class was abolished, and Japanese clothes began to be westernized, and many craftsmen lost their demand. Craftsmen who made Japanese swords and armor from metal and lacquer, and those who made netsuke dan kiseru from ivory needed new demand. The new Meiji government promoted the exhibition and export of arts and crafts to the World's fair in order to give works to craftsmen and earn foreign currency, and the Imperial family cooperated to promote arts and crafts by purchasing excellent works. Japanese ivory carvings were praised overseas for their exquisite workmanship, and in Japan, Ishikawa Komei and Asahi Gyokuzan gained a particularly high reputation, and their masterpieces presented to the Imperial Family are housed in the Museum of the Imperial Collections. [23]


The oldest chainsaw artist records go back to the 1950s, which include artists Ray Murphy and Ken Kaiser. In 1952 Ray Murphy used his father's chainsaw to carve his name into a piece of wood. In 1961 Ken Kaiser created 50 carvings for the Trees of Mystery.

Many new artists began to experiment with chainsaw carving, including Brenda Hubbard, Judy McVay, Don Colp, Cherie Currie (former Runaways lead singer), Susan Miller, Mike McVay, and Lois Hollingsworth. At this time chainsaw carvers started loading up their carvings in the back of their trucks, functioning as traveling galleries.

In the 1980s the art form really began to grow with Art Moe getting much exposure for the craft at the Lumberjack World Championships held in Hayward, Wisconsin. This event was broadcast nationally. The addition of carving contests from the west coast to the east coast brought carvers together to test their skills and learn from each other. The first Chainsaw Carving World Championships was held in 1987 and won by then 24-year-old Barre Pinske. The 1980s also saw the development of the Cascade Chainsaw Sculptors Guild and their newsletter, The Cutting Edge, mailed out to many members throughout the Pacific Northwest and the rest of the United States. The 80's also brought the first book on chainsaw carving, Fun and Profitable Chainsaw Carving by William Westenhaver and Ron Hovde, published in 1982. [1] Other books soon followed, including a book by Hal MacIntosh published in 1988 titled Chainsaw Art and in 2001 Chainsaw Carving: The Art and Craft. He published material on chainsaw carving that predated the popularity of the Internet.

The first booking agency dedicated to promoting and preserving the integrity of performance chainsaw art was founded by Brian Ruth in 1992. It was appropriately named Masters of the Chainsaw. The company has represented some of the most respected artists in the U.S., such as Brian Ruth, Ben Risney, Josh Landry, Mark Tyoe and Marty Long, as well as select artists from other countries. In 2007, Masters of the Chainsaw, under the direction of Jen Ruth, created the first international group of female sculptors under the name Chainsaw Chix. [2] Featured in this all-female team are greats like Stephanie Huber, Angela Polglaze, Lisa Foster, Alicia Charlton, Uschi Elias, and Sara Winter.

Brian Ruth introduced the art as a performance art to Japan in 1995. Since then, he has established a division of Masters of the Chainsaw and a chainsaw carving school in Tōei, Japan. [3]

Although the general impression of the public is that it is largely performance art (because of the noise, sawdust, and very fast carving results), there are a few chainsaw carvers now producing stunning works of art. These works can be produced in a fraction of the time that would normally be expected if only conventional tools such as mallet and gouges were used. Although many carvers continue to use other tools alongside the chainsaw, the chainsaw remains the primary tool.

With the growth of the Internet, chainsaw carving has become a worldwide phenomenon with chainsaw carvers all over the world. Most Notably in Canada Carver Kings Paul and Jacob take the stage performing on HGTV's "Carver Kings" and OLN's "Saw Dogs". Along with creating large scale semi abstract center pieces that have made it to many major states. You can follow them on Youtube Here

In the United Kingdom, the English Open Chainsaw Competition draws thousands of visitors annually. In 1989 Duncan Kitson was the first British carver, with notable success, to represent Wales and The UK in international competition. His work is recognized for its individual, engineered and tactile qualities. [4] English chainsaw artist Matthew Crabb has carved the largest wooden statue of the Virgin Mary in the world, at 9 meters high, in Schochwitz, Germany. [5] Welsh veteran, Harry Thomas of Thomas Carving is highly respected in the industry and specialises in bears, along with his son Danny Thomas. Harry has appeared on ITV's Daybreak, where he carved Queen Elizabeth II's head, in celebration of her Diamond Jubilee.

In Canada, many wooden statues produced by the chainsaw artist Pete Ryan decorate the small town of Hope, British Columbia. Glenn Greensides, another Canadian artist, branched out into Japan in 1995 and visited Japan each year for 12 consecutive years to create one 5 meter tall sculpture from an exported British Columbia log depicting the upcoming year's Japanese zodiac symbol.

In Japan, the Toei Chainsaw Art Club established the World Chainsaw Art Competition, which was the first chainsaw carving competition in the country. The 2011 World Chainsaw Art Competition at the Toei Dome was to be dedicated to raising money for disaster relief due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster that has affected the country. [6]

1999 marked the first year of the Ridgway Chainsaw Carving Rendezvous. [7] Every February hundreds of carvers go to a small town in the mountains of Pennsylvania for this event. The Chainsaw Carver Rendezvous is the biggest gathering of chainsaw carvers in the world and takes over the small town of Ridgway, Pennsylvania.

In 2010 American sculptor Bob King was awarded a "Star/Sprocket" on the Carvers Walk of Fame in Mulda, Germany, the location of the World Cup competition. This award confirms Bob has won more carving competitions than any other carver in the world to date.

In 2013, American chainsaw carver, Josh Landry, was awarded first place at the "Rally in the Valley" chainsaw carving competition. In previous years, Josh Landry was the youngest chainsaw carver participating in national and international chainsaw carving competitions.

As the art has evolved, special chainsaw blades and chains have been developed for carving. In Finland such equipment is affectionally called konepuukko ("mechanical puukko").

The chainsaw "blades" are technically known as "guide bars". For chainsaw carving these bars have very small noses (typically around 25 mm diameter). This enables the artist to create detail in the carving that would be impossible with a standard guide bar. The chains that are used on these guide bars are normally modified by reducing the length of the teeth in order that they are able to cut efficiently at the tip of the bar. The reason for this modification is that all chains manufactured currently (circa 2007) are made to be used on standard guide bars only. These "carving bars" are manufactured by "Cannon", "GB", and by a companies in Japan supplying "Stihl" and others. The other very important advantage with these guide bars is that they do not "kickback" when using the tip. they are therefore very safe to use in comparison with standard guide bars.

In order to reach the high levels of skill required to be a "chainsaw carver", a considerable amount of instruction and practice is required in the safe operation of a chainsaw. This is then followed by plenty of study and practice in carving basic shapes which then ultimately leads on to more ambitious projects. Chainsaw carvers wear protective clothing. A cut from a chainsaw is not just a cut, it actually removes a whole centimeter or more of flesh and bone. A victim can die very quickly from blood loss.

Two guilds have formed for chainsaw artists. The Cascade Chainsaw Sculptors Guild (CCSG) [8] is a nonprofit organization that was founded by a group of chainsaw artists in 1986. In 1993, the CCSG started putting out a bimonthly newsletter, "The Cutting Edge". Another nonprofit guild, United Chainsaw Carvers Guild, [9] was established in 2002 and published a quarterly newsletter titled "The Chainsaw Letter", but has since stopped publishing its newsletter. Both guilds claim to promote chainsaw art and the sharing of ideas amongst fellow artisans.


THREE TIMES OLDER THAN THE PYRAMIDS

The idol is three times as old as the Egyptian pyramids and was sculpted with the jaw of a beaver, its teeth intact.

“The word ⟞mon', for example, has a very wide range of meanings even in English - from devil to good genius,” said Dr Zhilin, a leading researcher of the academy’s Age Archeology Department.

‘‘In fact, given that we do not know the context 11,500 years ago, we cannot say exactly what the [markings on the idol] depicted.”

But he added: “Apparently these were some kind of spirits.

“Not deities, because we think that deities appeared later.”

"We must not underestimate the people who created the idol.

“They had all the necessary tools and skills - and they had a rather complicated world view.

“All the world was inhabited with different spirits.

“And not only the animals and the trees but even the stones were animated.

“We think it was something close to animism… I see in these images unity and diversity of the world around.

“And it was definitely not divided just into kind and evil spirits.”

He told the Siberian Times: “It is unlikely to be possible, at least in the near future, to speak seriously about deciphering of what is depicted there.

They had all the necessary tools and skills - and they had a rather complicated world view

Dr Mikhail Zhilin

“We do not have any written data, we do not have any analogues.”

New artists’ impressions show how the idol may have looked propped up against a rock face.

“Based on the the facts I can clearly say that it was not dug into the ground, like Totem poles,” he said.

“It was standing on a relatively hard, presumably stone, pedestal, because the lower part is flattened by strong pressure and this sculpture was quite heavy.

“It stood in this way but not for a very long time.”

German dendrologist Karl-Uwe Heussner discovered it was on display like this for no more than around two decades.

“After that a crack appeared in the middle - and a series of smaller cracks,” said Dr Zhilin.

“Then it fell into the water… there was a big Shigir paleo-lake.”

Another theory is that the idol could have been floated on a raft on the lake but “‘we have no data to confirm this”, he said.

“It was definitely standing on some stone base in the open air and there were no supports.”


How the World’s Oldest Wooden Sculpture Is Reshaping Prehistory

At 12,500 years old, the Shigir Idol is by far the earliest known work of ritual art. Only decay has kept others from being found.

Four views of the head of the Shigir Idol, a nine-foot-tall totem pole made of larch and discovered in a Russian peat bog in 1890. Credit. Sverdlovsk Regional Museum

The world’s oldest known wooden sculpture — a nine-foot-tall totem pole thousands of years old — looms over a hushed chamber of an obscure Russian museum in the Ural Mountains, not far from the Siberian border. As mysterious as the huge stone figures of Easter Island, the Shigir Idol, as it is called, is a landscape of uneasy spirits that baffles the modern onlooker.

Dug out of a peat bog by gold miners in 1890, the relic, or what’s left of it, is carved from a great slab of freshly cut larch. Scattered among the geometric patterns (zigzags, chevrons, herringbones) are eight human faces, each with slashes for eyes that peer not so benignly from the front and back planes.

The topmost mouth, set in a head shaped like an inverted teardrop, is wide open and slightly unnerving. “The face at the very top is not a passive one,” said Thomas Terberger, an archaeologist and head of research at the Department of Cultural Heritage of Lower Saxony, in Germany. “Whether it screams or shouts or sings, it projects authority, possibly malevolent authority. It’s not immediately a friend of yours, much less an ancient friend of yours.”

In archaeology, portable prehistoric sculpture is called “mobiliary art.” With the miraculous exception of the Shigir Idol, no Stone Age wood carvings survive. The statue’s age was a matter of conjecture until 1997, when it was carbon-dated by Russian scientists to about 9,500 years old, an age that struck most scholars as fanciful. Skeptics argued that the statue’s complex iconography was beyond the reach of the hunter-gatherer societies at the time unlike contemporaneous works from Europe and Asia featuring straightforward depictions of animals and hunt scenes, the Shigir Idol is decorated with symbols and abstractions.

In 2014, Dr. Terberger and a team of German and Russian scientists tested samples from the idol’s core — uncontaminated by previous efforts to conserve the wood — using accelerator mass spectrometry. The more advanced technology yielded a remarkably early origin: roughly 11,600 years ago, a time when Eurasia was still transitioning out of the last ice age. The statue was more than twice as old as the Egyptian pyramids and Stonehenge, as well as, by many millenniums, the first known work of ritual art.

A new study that Dr. Terberger wrote with some of the same colleagues in Quaternary International, further skews our understanding of prehistory by pushing back the original date of the Shigir Idol by another 900 years, placing it in the context of the early art in Eurasia.

“The idol was carved during an era of great climate change, when early forests were spreading across a warmer late glacial to postglacial Eurasia,” Dr. Terberger said. “The landscape changed, and the art — figurative designs and naturalistic animals painted in caves and carved in rock — did, too, perhaps as a way to help people come to grips with the challenging environments they encountered.”

Written with an eye toward disentangling Western science from colonialism, Dr. Terberger’s latest paper challenges the ethnocentric notion that pretty much everything, including symbolic expression and philosophical perceptions of the world, came to Europe by way of the sedentary farming communities in the Fertile Crescent 8,000 years ago.

“Ever since the Victorian era, Western science has been a story of superior European knowledge and the cognitively and behaviorally inferior ‘other,’” Dr. Terberger said. “The hunter-gatherers are regarded as inferior to early agrarian communities emerging at that time in the Levant. At the same time, the archaeological evidence from the Urals and Siberia was underestimated and neglected. For many of my colleagues, the Urals were a very terra incognita.”

To João Zilhão, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Barcelona who was not involved in the study, the take-home message of the research is that absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

“It’s similar to the ‘Neanderthals did not make art’ fable, which was entirely based on absence of evidence,” he said. “And then the evidence was found and the fable exposed for what it was. Likewise, the overwhelming scientific consensus used to hold that modern humans were superior in key ways, including their ability to innovate, communicate and adapt to different environments. Nonsense, all of it.”

Dr. Zilhão said the Shigir Idol findings revealed the extent to which preservation biases affect our understanding of Paleolithic art. “Most of the art must have been made of wood and other perishables,” he said. “Which makes it clear that arguments about the wealth of mobiliary art in, say, the Upper Paleolithic of Germany or France by comparison to southern Europe, are largely nonsensical and an artifact of tundra (where there are no trees and you use ivory, which is archaeologically visible) versus open forest environments (where you’d use wood, which is archaeologically invisible).”

Olaf Jöris, of the Leibniz Research Institute for Archaeology, agreed. “The new Shigir evidence makes archaeologists daydream of how the archaeological record may have looked if wooden remains had been preserved in greater abundance,” he said.

The Shigir Idol, named for the bog near Kirovgrad in which it was found, is presumed to have rested on a rock base for perhaps two or three decades before toppling into a long-gone paleo-lake, where the peat’s antimicrobial properties protected it like a time capsule. In the mid-19th century, gold was discovered beneath the mire, and the landowner, Count Alexey Stenbok-Fermor, hired laborers to mine the open-air site for ore. He instructed them to save any other objects they unearthed.

Thirteen feet down the idol was discovered, and retrieved in 10 fragments. The pieces were carted 60 miles to Yekaterinburg, the city where, 28 years later, the last czar of the Russian Empire, Emperor Nicholas II his wife, Alexandra and their children would be executed by the Bolsheviks. In Yekaterinburg, the count’s donation was displayed with bone arrowheads, slotted bone daggers, a polished elk antler and other ancient bog finds at the Urals Natural Sciences Society, today known as the Sverdlovsk Regional Museum of Local Lore.

The director of the museum allowed the railroad stationmaster, Dmitry Lobanov, an aspiring archaeologist, to assemble the main fragments into a nine-foot-tall figure with legs crossed tightly in a pose that potty-training parents of any epoch might recognize.

“It was not a scientific construction,” said the archaeologist Mikhail Zhilin of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a co-author of the new study. The idol stayed locked in that uncomfortable position until 1914, when the archaeologist Vladimir Tolmachev suggested incorporating the remnants into the finished work — increasing its height to almost 17 and a half feet. Much of the bottom half later went missing Mr. Tolmachev’s sketches of the section are all that remain.

For more than a century, the Shigir Idol was considered a curiosity, assumed to be at most a few thousand years old. The radiocarbon analysis in 1997 was greeted with derision by some scientists who found the conclusions implausibly old. Some doubters even suggested that the statue was a forgery.

Dr. Terberger and his colleagues have settled that question in their new study, demonstrating conclusively that the larch was a literal tree of knowledge. The timber was at least 159 years old when the ancient carpenters began to shape it.

“The rings tell us that trees were growing very slowly, as the temperature was still quite cold,” Dr. Terberger said. Given the speed with which larch logs rot and warp, the researchers determined that the idol was fashioned from a tree that had just been cut. And from the widths and depths of the markings, Dr. Zhilin deduced that the cuts were made by at least three sharp chisels, two of which were probably polished stone adzes and the other possibly the lower jaw of a beaver, teeth intact. (On the subject of beaver mandibles, Dr. Terberger respectfully disagrees. “During the period of rapid cooling from about 10,700 B.C. to 9,600 B.C. that we call the Younger Dryas, no beavers should have been around in the Transurals,” he said.)

And what do the engravings mean? Svetlana Savchenko, the artifact’s curator and an author on the study, speculates that the eight faces may well contain encrypted information about ancestor spirits, the boundary between earth and sky, or a creation myth. Although the monument is unique, Dr. Savchenko sees a resemblance to the stone sculptures of what has long been considered the world’s oldest temple, Göbekli Tepe, whose ruins are in present-day Turkey, some 1,550 miles away. The temple’s stones were carved around 11,000 years ago, which makes them 1,500 years younger than the Shigir Idol.

Marcel Niekus, an archaeologist with the Foundation for Stone Age Research in the Netherlands, said that the updated, older age of the Shigir Idol confirmed that it “represents a unique and unparalleled find in Europe. One could wonder how many similar pieces have been lost over time due to poor preservation conditions.”

The similarity of the geometric motifs to others across Europe in that era, he added, “is evidence of long-distance contacts and a shared sign language over vast areas. The sheer size of the idol also seems to indicate it was meant as a marker in the landscape that was supposed to be seen by other hunter-gatherer groups — perhaps marking the border of a territory, a warning or welcoming sign.”

Dr. Zhilin has spent much of the last 12 years investigating other peat bogs in the Urals. At one site he uncovered ample evidence of prehistoric carpentry — woodworking tools and a massive pine plank, roughly 11,300 years old, that he believes had been smoothed with an adze. “There are many more unexplored bogs in the mountains,” Dr. Zhilin said. Unfortunately, there are no ongoing excavations.

During a recent video conversation from his home in Moscow, Dr. Zhilin asked his interviewer in the United States: “What do you think is the hardest thing to find in the Stone Age archaeology of the Urals?”


Ivory Carving (35,000 BCE - present)


Close-up of Queen Figurine from the
12th-Century walrus ivories, known as
The Lewis Chessmen.
British Museum.

Introduction: What is Ivory? Characteristics, Uses

Ivory is a type of dentine - a hard, dense bony tissue which forms most of the teeth and tusks of animals - which has been used for millennia as a material for carving sculpture (mostly small-scale relief sculpture or various types of small statue) and other items of decorative art (such as carved ivory covers for illuminated manuscripts, religious objects, and boxes for costly objects), as well as a range of functional items (piano keys, billiard balls). Ivory was valued by both artists and patrons for its rarity, exceptional durability, and was especially prized among sculptors for its creamy colour, smooth texture and soft sheen. The art of ivory carving (including scrimshaw engraving) has been part of the cultures of many different civilizations including those of Egypt, Ancient Greece, Rome, Russia, Japan, China, and India. In addition it was an integral element in the plastic art of Islam, the Medieval Carolingian and Ottonian eras, as well as the Byzantine, Gothic and Renaissance periods. It also features in American Indian art, notably of the Inuit and northwest USA. Although less common than bronze or marble sculpture, ivory carving has produced some of the greatest sculptures in the history of art. The fact that ivory - unlike other precious materials - cannot be melted down or re-used was a major factor in its endurance as one of the most specialized of traditional crafts.

As far as prehistoric art was concerned, mammoth tusks and reindeer horn were the most commonly used types of ivory. Since then, elephant ivory has predominated, with appalling consequences for the African elephant in particular. In 1831, the demand for ivory in Britain, alone, led to the deaths of an estimated 4,000 elephants, while during the decade of the 1980s, roughly 70,000 African elephants a year were killed for their tusks. Today, thanks to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), ivory carving is now illegal in most circumstances around the globe. Since 2007, as a result of pressure from the International Fund for Animal Welfare, all ivory products, including carvings and sculptures, have been banned from eBay. The illicit ivory trade continues, however, so looking ahead, one can only hope that vegetable ivory (the nickname for a type of hard nut found in Columbia, Ecuador and Peru) will gradually replace the use of animal tooth and tusk ivory from endangered species.

Ivory Carving Techniques

Ivory carving tools and methods changed little up until the end of the 19th century. Carvers used an adz, axe or chisel for stripping the outer rind from the tusk, then a saw for cutting the tusk into manageable sections and then an implement known as a float to pare the surface. Only then would the carver resort to his fretsaws, gauges and hand chisels in order to actually carve the piece. All this changed, however, around 1900, when power-driven rotary saws and dental-type drills were introduced. These fast, powerful, labour-saving machine tools revolutionized ivory carving and, by 1950, were in widespread use around the world.

History/Traditions of Ivory Carving

Stone Age Ivories
Although wood carving was the main type of prehistoric sculpture, little evidence of it survives, due to its perishable nature. But Stone Age art does feature a wide range of works carved from tusks and bone, as exemplified by the Ivory Carvings of the Swabian Jura (c.33,000-30,000 BCE) - a variety of human and animal figures found in a number of different Paleolithic rock shelters, including the famous Lion Man of Hohlenstein-Stadel (c.38,000 BCE). Other well known examples of this type of Paleolithic art include several of the mysterious Venus figurines, such as the Venus of Hohle Fels (35,000 BCE), the Venus of Brassempouy (23,000 BCE), the Venus of Kostenky (22,000 BCE), the Avdeevo Venuses (20,000 BCE), the Zaraysk Venuses (c.20,000 BCE) and the Mal'ta Venuses (20,000 BCE). For a later Russian ivory carving, see: Venus of Eliseevichi (14,000 BCE).

Ancient Egypt (c.5500-700 BCE)
Carvings from elephant ivory and hippopotamus teeth appeared at a very early stage in Egyptian sculpture (c.5500 BCE onwards), especially during the Naquada I Period (4000-3500 BCE) of Neolithic art. Noted works have included: statuettes of King Khufu, relief sculptures engraved on ivory slabs, decorative items like casket inlays, amulets, and a range of utensils. Ivories were also carved in Mesopotamian sculpture (3000-500) - see Carved Ivory Lid of a Syrian Cosmetics box (1250, Louvre Museum, Paris). The Egyptian traditions of ivory carving in relief and ivory inlays/overlays were developed further by Phoenician artists (see for instance Lioness Devouring a Boy, c.800 BCE, British Museum, London), by Syrian artists (see for instance the Cosmetics Box Lid, c.1250 BCE, Louvre Museum, Paris), and by Minoan and Mycenean sculptors, during the period (c.1700-700 BCE). Note: In China, during this period, jade carving was the most prestigious form of carving.

Ancient Greece (c.500-100 BCE)
Ivory carving was a regular feature of Greek sculpture, although few ivories of any significance have survived. However, known masterpieces include the large-scale Chryselephantine sculpture (made from ivory, for the flesh parts and whites of the eyes, and gold for clothes) made by Phidias (c.488-431 BCE), the foremost Greek sculptor of the period. These included the statue of a seated Zeus in the temple at Olympia, and the figure of the Greek goddess Athena in the Parthenon at Athens.

Rome (c.100 BCE - 300 CE)
Roman sculpture was designed to encapsulate the glory and grandeur of Ancient Rome, and thus focused on large scale historical reliefs, imperial statues and busts. As a result, Roman sculptors added little to the tradition of ivory carving, except for the production of a number of personal ivory plaques, or hinged panels (in diptych style) - a sort of ancient business card issued by the Consuls. (A typical example is, for example, the Plaque from the Diptych of Consul Areobindus, 506 CE, National Museum of Middle Ages, Paris.) During the era of early Christian art (c.150-550), these engraved ivory panels were adapted by Christian sculptors, for use as devotional items.

Early Christian Ivories (c.300-450)
Persecution of the early Christians compelled early Christian sculpture to be small-scale and portable, a form to which ivory was ideally suited. Moreover, the Old and New Testaments of the Bible provided carvers with a rich source of iconographic imagery, as exemplified by the Brescia Casket (c.300-400 CE). Indeed, from hereon, small-scale religious images dominated ivory carving up to the Renaissance era.

Byzantine Ivory Carving (c.450-1100)
The sack of Rome (c.450) left the Eastern Roman capital of Byzantium (Constantinople) as the centre of Christianity and Christian art. This Eastern Orthodox world of Byzantine art continued to disapprove of large-scale religious sculpture and therefore embraced smaller-scale ivory carving. See, for example, the figurative masterpiece Ariadne and Her Cortege (510 CE, National Museum of Middle Ages, Paris) and the Barberini Diptych (c.500-550, Louvre Museum, Paris). A major work of religious art, from this period, made in Constantinople and shipped to Ravenna, is the Throne of Maximianus, bishop of Ravenna (546-556). (See also: Christian Art, Byzantine Period.) No important Byzantine ivory carving has survived from the period (c.600-800), although there are a number of magnificent surviving reliefs from the 10th and 11th centuries, as well as several outstanding triptychs. These include the Harbaville Triptych (c.900-1000) and the Borradaile Triptych.

Anglo-Saxon Ivory Carving (c.700-900)
If Constantinople continued to disapprove of large-scale religious sculpture, things were different in the West. Beginning with the culture of King Charlemagne at Aachen, ivory carving lost its dominance while monumental sculpture gradually became more important. Even so, small-scale sculpture in metalwork, bone and ivory was still popular among Anglo Saxon artists, who created works using imported walrus and whale ivory, as exemplified by the Franks Casket (c.700-800). This work contains an extraordinary mixture of pagan, historical and Christian imagery, with inscriptions in Old English and Latin. Another Anglo-Saxon masterpiece, which illustrates the trend away from small scale reliefs and the like, is the set of walrus ivory Lewis Chess Pieces (c.1175, British Museum, London).

Carolingian (750-900): Ottonian (900-1050)
Walrus tusks remained a popular feature in Carolingian art. Carvers turned them into religious objects such as crucifixes, reliquaries and other containers for holy relics, as well as cover panels for illuminated manuscripts and prayer books. These traditions were maintained and developed during the era of Ottonian art. Examples include the Carolingian ivory plaques David and St Gerome (c.790, Louvre Museum, Paris) and St Gregory with His Scribes (c.865, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna), and the Ottonian ivory relief sculptures Otto I Presenting a Model of His Church to the Enthroned Christ (c.965, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) and Coronation of Emperor Otto II and Theophanu (c.982, National Museum of Middle Ages, Paris).

Romanesque and Gothic (1000-1400)
Fine art changed direction during the period of Romanesque art and the subsequent era of Gothic art. The emphasis on decoration of religious and ecclesiastical objects was supplanted by a focus on architectural decoration, triggered by the new and widespread building of cathedrals and monastic churches. Stone sculpture, monumental painting and stained glass art now took centre stage, while ivory sculpture was seen as a minor art, albeit a highly specialized one. It was during this period that Paris became the leading centre for ivory carving, exporting works throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, including gaming pieces, small boxes, devotional diptychs, crucifixes, plaques, and other utilitarian objects. (A typical Romanesque religious plaque is the Journey to Emmaus and the Noli Me Tangere, 1120, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.) Other centres of medieval ivory engraving were Dieppe (France) and Erbach (Germany).

Decline in the West (1400-present)
As you might expect, Renaissance sculptors (1400-1600) took ivory carving to a new level of sophistication, although demand remained stagnant. This was partly because of the greater availability and lower cost of wood which became the leading medium for small sculpture, especially north of the Alps, under master carvers such as Veit Stoss (1445-1533), Tilman Riemenschneider (1460-1531) and Gregor Erhart (c.1470-1540). A brief revival in ivory carving occurred in Germany and Flanders during the period of Baroque sculpture, during the 17th century, but it slumped once more during the 18th and 19th centuries, and has not recovered since, despite the growing demand for functional items. As a semi-illicit technical craft it continues to flourish in certain areas of the world, though its aesthetic worth is minimal.

Ivory Carving in the East

Islam
From the time of Muhammad onwards, if not before, ivory was an idea material for the intricate abstract patterns favoured by Islamic art, and was used extensively in the Middle East, North Africa and Islamic Spain. The relative prosperity of the Islamic world coupled with its easier geographical access to both African and Indian ivories allowed its carvers to produce larger pieces, frequently incised with geometric, floral and zoomorphic arabesques.

India
Although ivory carving has been practiced in India for more than 4,000 years, few carved pieces have survived to illustrate this tradition. Those that have, however (see for instance, the mythological figure of the Hindu god Ganesha, c.1400, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), display imaginative designs, exquisite craftsmanship and a profligate use of precious materials! The main centres for ivory carving in India included Murshidabad, Mysore, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.

China
Although ivory is not considered quite as prestigious as other materials, such as jade or rhinoceros horn, ivory carvers have been active in China since before the era of Shang dynasty art (18th-12th century BCE) - see for instance the Shang ivory and turqoise goblets in the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing. Elephants roamed the forests around the Yellow River for millennia until they became extinct during the Sung dynasty, so artists had easy access to a regular supply of tusks. During the Han Dynasty (206-220 CE) ivory tablets became a regular feature of formal dress, and even grew in size during the T'ang (618-907) and Sung (960-1279) dynasties. During the era of Ming dynasty art (1368-1644), ivory was used to create small statuettes of the gods and other figures. See also Chinese Buddhist Sculpture (c.100-present). During the era of Qing dynasty art (1644-1911), when Beijing and Guangzhou established themselves as the leading centres of Chinese ivory carving, the craft became more intricate and widespread. Objects carved included decorative handles, brush-holders, table screens, cylindrical brush boxes, as well as a wide range of delicately carved figurines, often coloured with stains and lacquers. Later, Chinese carvers produced snuff bottles, stands for porcelains, perfume boxes, accessories for opium smokers, as well as Mah-Jong sets and seals.

Examples of Ivory Carving can be seen in some of the best art museums and sculpture gardens around the world, notably the Louvre Museum, Paris, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

• For more about the crafts of ivory tusk and tooth carving, or scrimshaw, see: Homepage.


What is the legacy of Ancient Greek Sculpture?

Greek sculpture broke with the artistic conventions that had prevailed for centuries in many civilizations, and instead of reproducing figures according to a prescribed formula, they were free to pursue the idealized form of the human body. Likewise, the hard, lifeless material was magically transformed into intangible qualities such as balance, humor and grace by creating some of the great masterpieces of universal art and inspiring and influencing the artists who would follow in Hellenistic and Roman times to produce more masterpieces such as the Venus de Milo. In addition, the perfection in the proportions of the human body achieved by Greek sculptors continues to inspire artists even today. The great Greek works are still consulted by 3D artists to create accurate virtual images and by athletes in sports and entertainment, who have compared athletic bodies with Greek sculptures to check the abnormal muscle development achieved through the use of banned substances such as steroids.


Tonton videonya: War Soveraign Soaring the Heaven 1-10 (Ogos 2022).

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos